If You Want to Understand Code-Switching, You Need to Read Jean Toomer’s “Cane”

Toomer’s groundbreaking 1923 work reflects the complexity of racial performance By Lee Williams As the Harlem Renaissance skipped to a run, the South Georgian characters of Jean Toomer’s Cane demonstrated what present day Black Americans know all too well: to survive the collisions of racial trauma or violence, one has to switch identities. Constantly. Published in 1923, […]

Lee Williams

Lee Williams is a published author, ghostwriter, and content strategist based in Florida. His nonfiction essays explore the intersections of culture, history, folklife, and race. For fiction, Lee specializes in the Southern gothic. His writing and editing career also includes ten-plus years of professional experience as a chief storyteller for global and nationally recognized brands, […]